Urban design and tenant variety influences on consumers' emotions and approach behavior

Alessandro De Nisco, Gary Warnaby

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This paper extends Mehrabian and Russell's Stimulus-Organism-Response framework to investigate the influence of two selected environmental variables - esthetic design and tenant variety - relating to an urban shopping area on consumers' emotional states and actual shopping responses. Results of a survey conducted in an Italian town center show that the variety of tenant-mix positively affects both pleasure and arousal while esthetic design has a significant influence only on pleasure. Moreover, emotional states induced by the urban environment exert a different influence on shopping outcomes, with pleasure increasing the amount of money and time spent, and arousal positively influencing unplanned shopping and negatively affecting time and money. The paper concludes by discussing managerial and research implications for both retailing and urban marketing. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)211-217
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Business Research
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014


    • Arousal
    • Atmospherics
    • Physical design
    • Pleasure
    • Retail environment
    • Shopping street
    • Tenant variety


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