Gadoxetate, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, is a substrate of organic-anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Six drugs, with varying degrees of transporter inhibition, were used to assess gadoxetate dynamic contrast enhanced MRI biomarkers for transporter inhibition in rats. Prospective prediction of changes in gadoxetate systemic and liver AUC (AUCR), resulting from transporter modulation, were performed by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. A tracer-kinetic model was used to estimate rate constants for hepatic uptake (khe), and biliary excretion (kbh). The observed median fold-decreases in gadoxetate liver AUC were 3.8- and 1.5-fold for ciclosporin and rifampicin, respectively. Ketoconazole unexpectedly decreased systemic and liver gadoxetate AUCs; the remaining drugs investigated (asunaprevir, bosentan, and pioglitazone) caused marginal changes. Ciclosporin decreased gadoxetate khe and kbh by 3.78 and 0.09 mL/min/mL, while decreases for rifampicin were 7.20 and 0.07 mL/min/mL, respectively. The relative decrease in khe (e.g., 96% for ciclosporin) was similar to PBPK-predicted inhibition of uptake (97–98%). PBPK modelling correctly predicted changes in gadoxetate systemic AUCR, whereas underprediction of decreases in liver AUCs was evident. The current study illustrates the modelling framework and integration of liver imaging data, PBPK, and tracer-kinetic models for prospective quantification of hepatic transporter-mediated DDI in humans.
- hepatic transporters
- modelling and simulation