Utterance at a distance

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In this paper I defend Kaplan's claim that the sentence "I am here now" is logically true. A number of counter-examples to the claim have been proposed, including occurrences of the sentence in answerphone messages, written notes left for later decoding, etc. These counter-examples are only convincing if they can be shown to be cases where the correct context with respect to which the utterance should be evaluated is the context in which it is decoded rather than encoded. I argue that this is not the case, and draw on the distinction between force and content to suggest an alternative account of how information is communicated in these cases that is consistent with Kaplan's semantic theory. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-221
Number of pages8
JournalPhilosophical Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


  • Indexicality
  • Kaplan
  • Semantics


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