Weakly Supervised Anomaly Detection Coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy for the Identification of Non-normal Tissue

Dougal Ferguson, Alex Henderson, Elizabeth F. Mcinnes, Peter Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The detection and classification of histopathological abnormal tissue constituents using Machine Learning (ML) techniques generally requires example data for each tissue or cell type of interest. This creates problems for studies on tissue that will have few regions of interest, or for those looking to identify and classify diseases of rarity, resulting in inadequate sample sizes from which to build multivariate and ML models. Regarding the impact on vibrational spectroscopy, specifically infrared (IR) spectroscopy, low numbers of samples may result in ineffective modelling of the chemical composition of sample groups, resulting in detection and classification errors. Anomaly detection may be a solution to this problem, enabling users to effectively model tissue constituents considered to represent normal tissue to capture any abnormal tissue and identify instances of non-normal tissue, be it disease or spectral artefacts. This work illustrates how a novel approach using a weakly supervised anomaly detection algorithm paired with IR microscopy can detect non-normal tissue spectra. In addition to incidental interferents such as hair, dust, and tissue scratches, the algorithm can also detect regions of diseased tissue. The model is never introduced to instances of these groups, training solely on healthy control data using only the IR spectral fingerprint region. This approach is demonstrated using liver tissue data from an agrochemical exposure mouse study.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnalyst
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 13 Jun 2023

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