Weight-Based Nakamoto-Style Blockchains

Simon Holmgaard Kamp, Bernardo Magri, Christian Matt, Jesper Buus Nielsen, Søren Eller Thomsen, Daniel Tschudi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


We propose a framework for building Nakamoto-style proof-of-work blockchains where blocks are treated differently in the “longest chain rule”. The crucial parameter is a weight function assigning different weights to blocks according to their hash value. Our framework enables the analysis of different weight functions while proving all statements at the appropriate level of abstraction. This allows us to quickly derive protocol guarantees for different weight functions. We exemplify the usefulness of our framework by capturing the classical Bitcoin protocol as well as exponentially growing functions as special cases. We show the typical properties—chain growth, chain quality and common prefix—for both, and further show that the latter provide an additional guarantee, namely a weak form of optimistic responsiveness. More precisely, we prove for a certain class of exponentially growing weight functions that in periods without corruption, the confirmation time only depends on the unknown actual network delay instead of the known upper bound.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgress in Cryptology – LATINCRYPT 2021 - 7th International Conference on Cryptology and Information Security in Latin America, Proceedings
EditorsPatrick Longa, Carla Ràfols
PublisherSpringer Berlin
Number of pages21
ISBN (Print)9783030882372
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12912 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


  • Block weight
  • Blockchain
  • Chain-selection rule
  • Optimistic responsiveness
  • Proof of work


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