What Happens When I Irradiate a BFC?

D.C. Watts, Hamad Algamaiah

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Photo-curing or photo-polymerization of resin-based composites (RBCs) including bulk fill (BF) types and associated restoratives is a routine procedure in operative dentistry. However, although it is routine, there are many pitfalls such that the procedure can be inadequate or even seriously defective.

Clinicians may become familiar with the rapid transformation of RBC pastes to rigid solids, but still lack understanding of how and why this happens. Efforts to learn scientifically about the interaction between light beams and resin-composites can significantly promote effective clinical placement of restorations.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBulk Fill Resin Composites in Restorative Dentistry
Subtitle of host publicationA Clinical Guide
EditorsJoseph Sabbagh, Robert McConnell
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783031163883
ISBN (Print)9783031163876
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2023


  • resin composites
  • degree of conversion
  • reciprocity hypothesis
  • RBC
  • bulk fill
  • photo-polymerization
  • Photons
  • irradiance
  • radiant exposure
  • Beer–Lambert law
  • photo-initiator


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