What outcomes are important to patients with long term conditions? A discrete choice experiment

Gerry Richardson, Chris Bojke, Anne Kennedy, David Reeves, Peter Bower, Victoria Lee, Elizabeth Middleton, Caroline Gardner, Claire Gately, Anne Rogers

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    Objective: To assess how much patients with long-term conditions value self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in their ability to manage their condition) compared with other health outcomes, including measures of quality of life, and process outcomes including access to General Practitioners. Methods: Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) set in UK community settings. Participants: 367 patients (mean age 57.5) living in the community with a wide range of self-defined long-term conditions. Main outcome measures: the relative value that individuals place on four specific outcomes, namely, self-efficacy, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), access to General Practitioners, and level of isolation. Results: Most responders completed their questionnaire in a consistent manner. Most valuations of outcomes were in the expected direction and were statistically significant. A substantial minority of responders exhibited counter-intuitive preferences. The existence of a significant constant in all models raised concerns about model misspecification. Nevertheless, all models showed that participants were willing to trade substantial reductions in their HRQoL for improvements in their self-efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of patients with chronic conditions were able to complete the DCE questionnaires. However, the existence of counter-intuitive preferences and evidence of model misspecification require further investigation. These issues are largely overlooked in the health economics literature. Self-efficacy is an important outcome for this group and is not included explicitly in conventional HRQoL measures. This is potentially important where decisions are made on the basis of cost-effectiveness using Quality Adjusted Life Years as the metric. Exclusion of these outcomes may lead to the cost-effectiveness of these interventions being understated. © 2008, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)331-339
    Number of pages8
    JournalValue in Health
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


    • Discrete choice experiment
    • Health economics
    • Quality adjusted life-years
    • Quality of life


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