WHOQOL Pain and Discomfort module: Development and validity testing of the Italian version

Maria Elena Boero, Anna L. Melegari, Paola Vizzuso, Vanda Braida, Valentina Panetta, Suzanne M. Skevington, Victoria Mason

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Background: The World Health Organization Quality of Life scale Pain and Discomfort Module (WHOQOL PDM) was designed to assess quality of life (QoL) in adults with chronic pain. It comprises 16 items covering four facets of pain: relief, anger/frustration, vulnerability/fear/worry, and uncertainty. Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the Italian version of the WHOQOL PDM. Methods: Chronic pain was assessed in 400 patients using the WHOQOL PDM and other pain scales, together with scales measuring associated symptoms, depression, anxiety, and QoL. Results: The WHOQOL PDM shows good internal consistency, concurrent validity (it was significantly associated with all the WHOQOL BREF domains), construct validity (it was signifcantly associated with other pain scales), and discriminant validity (there were signifcant differences among different groups of patients). Conclusions: The Italian version of the WHOQOL PDM is a brief, useful, and valid tool for assessing chronic pain and its impact on patients' QoL.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)440-448
    Number of pages8
    JournalInternational Journal of Palliative Nursing
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013


    • Chronic pain
    • Quality of life
    • Validation in Italian
    • WHOQOL pain and discomfort module


    Dive into the research topics of 'WHOQOL Pain and Discomfort module: Development and validity testing of the Italian version'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this