Characterising and understanding the professional and organisational commitment of community pharmacists

Student thesis: Phd


Community-pharmacy is in a state of flux with a series of significant recent changes including the Community-pharmacy Contract, the reconstitution of the RPSGB and the General Pharmaceutical Council. There are also socio-cultural changes such as greater numbers of women in the profession, and an increase in pharmacists reducing their hours of work. The latter comes at a time when workload/roles are expanding and diversifying, leading to potential scenarios in which there are shortfalls between the hours worked and workload demands. This will have an impact on community pharmacists, but its magnitude may be dependent on how they are professionally and organisationally committed. Whilst there has been some promising commitment research in the USA, little research has been published in GB. However, multidimensional models of commitment have been researched extensively in other professions.A programme of research was developed and conducted to characterise and understand the role of professional and organisational commitment in community-pharmacy in GB using the Three-Component Model of commitment (TCM). Various methods were used to answer the research questions including focus-groups to assess qualitatively the contextual appropriateness of the constructs (stage 1.1), and cognitive-interviews to assess construct validity (stage 1.2). Stage 2 consisted of a large survey study, which examined the psychometric validity of the measurement scales as well as salient a-priori theoretical relationships found in both community pharmacy in GB and other professional contexts. A total of 32 participants were recruited for stage one and 713 community-pharmacists participated in stage two. Ethical approval was attained from the University of Manchester Ethics Committee for both stages one and two.The research found that beyond the affective facets of professional and organisational commitment both normative and continuance facets made significant, unique and yet varied contributions to the influence of both withdrawal-behaviours and work-performance behaviours in the community pharmacy population in GB. However, the levels and strengths of the different facets of professional and organisational commitment also appeared to differ amongst the different subgroups in community pharmacists in GB. For example, independent/small-chain pharmacists exhibited significantly higher levels of affective and normative organisational commitment and significantly lower levels of organisational withdrawal behaviours compared to large-multiple pharmacists. The implications of these and other differences were highlighted and recommendations made salient to the profession and community pharmacy organisations about how the levels of the different facets of commitment may be managed to foster greater work-performance behaviours and mitigate the different withdrawal behaviours.
Date of Award31 Dec 2013
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorKaren Hassell (Supervisor) & Sheena Johnson (Supervisor)


  • Sector Withdrawal Bhevaiour
  • Large-Multiple Community Pharmacists
  • Reduction in Hours Withdrawal Behavioiur
  • Organisational Withdrawal Behaviour
  • Professional Withdrawal Behaviour
  • Continuance Organisational Commitment
  • Affective Organisational Commitment
  • Normative Professional Commitment
  • Continuance Professional Commitment
  • Affective Professional Commitment
  • Normative Organisational Commitment
  • Full-time Community Pharmacists
  • Three Component Model of Commitment
  • Community Pharmacy
  • Community Pharmacist
  • Professional Commitment
  • Organisational Commitment
  • Withdrawal Behaviour
  • In-role Behaviour
  • Extra-role Behaviour
  • Locum Community Pharmacists
  • Independent Community Pharmacists

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