Apolipoproteins have important roles in the transport of lipids and the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism as cofactors for enzymes and ligands for receptor-binding. Their function and metabolism are closely related to the development of many diseases. This dissertation describes the investigation of the distribution and metabolism of apoE and glycated apoE in diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidaemia in comparison with healthy people. In order to carry out the research, I developed several robust laboratory methods and techniques for the isolation and measurement of apoE and glycated apoE. These included (1) a modified in-house ultracentrifugation for isolation of lipoprotein fractions (2) high sensitivity sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for apoE and (3) m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography for the separation of glycated and non- glycated apoE.In healthy people the apoE concentration in different lipoprotein fractions is influenced by age, gender and apoE genotype. The effect of atorvastatin on serum apoE concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes with nephropathy was dependent on the dose of atorvastatin and apoE genotype and was strongly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (TG) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL).The effect of bariatric surgery on obese patients with and without diabetes demonstrated that after bariatric surgery, VLDL-apoE increased and apoE in low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and d>1.21g/ml fractions decreased; both glycated LDL-apoE and glycated HDL-apoE decreased. Total apoE and glycated apoE concentrations in plasma decreased to levels comparable to those of healthy controls. However, the distribution within the lipoprotein fractions was very different.The effect of niacin/laropiprant (LRPT) on lipoproteins in hyperlipidaemia patients was assessed in a blind crossover trial. Niacin/LRPT slightly decreased VLDL-apoE and LDL-apoE. It had no effect on apoE in HDL. Glycated apoE did not change in hyperlipidaemia.These results show that, compared with healthy people, the apoE distribution in obese and hyperlipidaemia patients is abnormal despite no change in total apoE concentration in some cases. The results also demonstrate that glycated apoE originates preferentially from VLDL. Various mechanisms for these results and relationships with other lipids are discussed. Furthermore, I suggest several potential directions, especially in vitro, for further research on apoE function and metabolism.
|Date of Award||1 Aug 2015|
- The University of Manchester
|Supervisor||Paul Durrington (Supervisor) & Handrean Soran (Supervisor)|
- ApoE genotype
- Apolipoprotein E