Control of a Super-capacitor Based Energy Storage System

  • Ding Wu

Student thesis: Phd


The increasing use of electrical technologies within on-board (aircraft, road vehicle, train and ship) power systems is resulting in complex and highly dynamic networks in which energy storage devices have an important role to play, for example to resolve the instantaneous mismatch between load demand and power availability or to provide the flexibility to optimise overall performance. In this thesis, a multi-level controller for a super-capacitor based energy storage system (ESS) is designed, simulated, emulated and validated experimentally to show its effectiveness in smoothing load and managing state-of-charge of the energy storage system.This thesis first investigates the low level control of the dual-interleaved converter, particularly at light load where seven discontinuous conduction modes (DCMs) appear. A thorough analysis of these operating modes is given and validated by simulations and experiments. Based on the analysis, an inverse-model-based feed-forward current controller is implemented, offering a low level converter control interface which serves the high level supervisory controller within the energy storage system.Two supervisory control methods have been proposed in this thesis, both producing a super-capacitor current reference for the low level controller. The first supervisory control not only manages the energy within the ESS but also shields the primary power source from rapid load transients , which has been examined through an emulated ESS in the Intelligent Electrical Power Network Evaluation Facility (IEPNEF). A more advanced supervisory controller is then proposed which in addition to the benefits of the first control, regulates the rate-of-change in power that is drawn from the primary power source in the system. The proposed second control method is implemented within a real super-capacitor energy storage system in IEPNEF, with both simulation and experimental results successfully demonstrating and validating its operation.
Date of Award1 Aug 2014
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorRebecca Todd (Supervisor) & Andrew Forsyth (Supervisor)


  • Energy storage, control, energy management, DC-DC converter, electrical system

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