Corrosion Protection and Microstructure of Dissimilar Materials. A thesis submitted to The University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Uyime, Donatus on the 30th of July, 2015.Investigations on the micro- and macro-galvanic corrosion mechanisms in un-coupled AA2024-T3 alloys, AA2024-T3 coupled with mild steel (with and without the influence of cadmium and under varying solution temperatures), dissimilar friction stir welds of AA5083-O and AA6082-T6 alloys and a friction stir welded AA7018 alloy have been carried out. Selected methods of preventing and / or minimising the investigated corrosion phenomena were also investigated.The investigation of the corrosion behaviour of the uncoupled AA2024-T3 alloy revealed that there are two distinct stages of polarization during the galvanostatic polarization of AA2024T3 alloy in de-aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. From the first stage, the relationships between the pitting incubation time, pitting potential and applied current density for AA2024T3 alloy in the de-aerated condition were established. Whilst studying the in situ corrosion phenomena on the uncoupled AA2024-T3 alloy using the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET),three distinct stages in the variation of the recorded current density values with time were revealed. Attempts were made to correlate these stages with the corrosion behaviour of the alloy.The study of the galvanic interactions between AA2024-T3 and mild steel revealed that AA2024-T3 is anodic to mild steel at room temperature, but polarity reversal of the couple starts (from a temperature as low as 35 oC upwards) when the couple is introduced into the solution above ambient temperature. Importantly, AA2024-T3 is clearly cathodic to mild steel at 60 oC, although with very low measured galvanic current values. Cadmium coating (at ambient temperature) on the mild steel reduced the galvanic corrosion of the couple by as much as 20 µA/cm2 because of the formation of a CdO/Cd(OH)2 layer on mild steel. In the study of the dissimilar friction stir welds of AA5083-O and AA6082-T6 alloys, it was observed that material flows (pushes but does not mix) more from the advancing side into the retreating side and that the mixture of materials is far from complete. Two welding speeds were compared; the welding speeds have no clear influence on the microhardness, but affected the mixing proportions in the flow arm and in the nugget stem. The faster welding speed resulted in increased susceptibility to corrosion because of the reduced tool rotation per weld length for heat generation and the mixing of materials. The heat affected zones of both alloys and the transition regions between the AA5083-O alloy and the AA6082-T6 alloy rich zones have been identified to be the regions that are most susceptible to corrosion. Anodizing the weld in order to minimise corrosion showed that the AA5083-O alloy rich zones materials, in the weld, oxidizes more during anodizing compared with the AA6082-T6 alloy rich zones. Sputtering deposition prior to anodizing, promotes the formation of a uniform oxide film across the entire weld zones and prevents the boundary dissolution that occurs when the dissimilar weld of AA5083-O and AA6082-T6 alloys is anodized in 4 M H2SO4 solution at 15 V at ambient temperature.The investigation of the corrosion susceptible regions in friction stir welded AA7018 alloy, which was based on the use of ISO 11846 immersion test and the potentiodynamic polarization technique in naturally aerated 3.5 % NaCl solution, revealed intergranular, crystallographic and second phase particle influenced mode of attack. The heat affected zone was found to be the most susceptible to corrosion.
|Date of Award||31 Dec 2015|
- The University of Manchester
|Supervisor||George Thompson (Supervisor) & Xiaorong Zhou (Supervisor)|
- Corrosion; corrosion protection; anodizing; friction stir welding; dissimilar materials; aluminium alloys