Development of 3D Braiding Concept for Multi-Axial Textile Preforms

  • Khayale Jan

Student thesis: Phd


Significant research has been conducted to develop new preforming techniques as the conventional textile technologies have certain limitations in producing purpose built products. The successful attempts have opened new horizons for future prospects. 3D weaving has been one of the prominent technologies whilst 3D braiding has appeared to be more versatile in preforming quasi-isotropic near-net-shape preforms.The following study includes a review of the textile preforming techniques. Three-dimensional (3D) textiles are discussed on a broader scale and more specifically concentrating on multi-axial 3D preforming techniques. Cartesian braiding is the focal point of this research. Two-step and four-step braiding methods are investigated as being the core areas of interest. The experimental work was initiated by drawing preliminary concepts that ultimately converged into a final concept of developing a novel 3D textile preforming machine capable of producing multi-axial textile preforms with the inclusion of z-axis yarn through-the-thickness of the structure. Such preforms are multi-layered and interlocked together by means of binder yarns. The final concept for the development of the machine incorporates the insertion of braiding yarns, axial yarns and binder yarns simultaneously. The development of a fully automated machine has been outlined in detail. Insertion of through-the-thickness yarn along the z-axis is a characteristic feature of the concept which distinguishes this development among the existing preforming technologies. The insertion of binder yarn along the z-axis and the transfer of a miniature shuttle with the help of a rapier system has been the pivotal area of this research. Following the development of the machine, sample development has been explained with all necessary details. This part covers the preparation for sample development, yarn tensioning and finally the development of the preforms. The description of various preforms using different numbers of yarns and tow sizes has been given.In the last phase, tomographic analysis of the preforms has been conducted in order to study the tow geometry and fibre architecture. This study creates a very clear understanding of fibre architecture and shows a good comparison of weave pattern between various textile preforms. Besides preform geometry, an analysis of the mechanical performance of the produced preforms has been presented. The preforms have been infused with epoxy resin to turn them into composites for tensile and compression tests. Tests results indicate the likely behaviour and trend of the manufactured preforms.
Date of Award31 Dec 2015
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester


  • 3D Braiding, Cartesian Braiding, Textile Composite, Textile Preform, Multi-axial textile preform

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