Development of Supramolecular Resists for Advanced Lithography

  • Hayden Alty

Student thesis: Phd


With the death of Moore's Law approaching due to 193 immersion lithography reaching its ultimate resolution limit, new advanced lithographic techniques are required to reach beyond the 5 nm node. The current successor to 193 immersion lithography is EUV lithography the success of which relies on the manufacture and reliability of photomasks. The demand on mask manufacture is to produce smaller on wafer features without increase lead times. To successfully meet this target, new resist materials must be developed for electron and ion beam lithography. Thus, a series of modular supramolecular resists were designed and investigated. To expedite the design process an ion and electron simulation, named EXCALIBUR, was developed to simulate new resists before synthesis to identify viable candidates for characterization. EXCALIBUR employs Monte Carlo methods to simulate full secondary and auger electron cascades generated in electron and ion beam exposures. Using this design process an indium ring based electron beam resist ([NH2(allyl)2][In7NiF8(O2CtBu)16]) was developed which was capable of producing 50 nm pitch lines with a dose of 1400 pC/cm using 30 kV electrons and a chromium ring ion beam resist ([NH2(allyl)2][Cr7NiF8(O2CtBu)16]) which yielded 16 nm pitch lines with a dose of 22 pC/cm using 35 kV Helium ions. The supramolecular resists also can be deposited through sublimation which provides the basis for a novel 3D resist lithography technique.
Date of Award1 Aug 2022
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorRichard Winpenny (Supervisor), Stephen Yeates (Supervisor) & Scott Lewis (Supervisor)


  • 3D Lithography
  • Semiconductor
  • Metal Organic Resists
  • Nanofabrication
  • Ion Beam Lithography
  • Supramolecular Resist
  • Electron Beam Lithography
  • Monte Carlo Simulation

Cite this