Dual-Axis Fluidic Thrust Vectoring of High-Aspect Ratio Supersonic Jets

  • Olaseinde Jegede

Student thesis: Phd


A dual-axis fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) system is proposed where the supersonic propulsive jet of an aircraft is exhausted over a scarfed (swept), curved surface to produce flight control moments in both the pitch and yaw axes. This work contributes towards practical dual-axis FTV through expansion of fundamental curved-wall jet (CWJ) understanding, development of the novel Superimposed Characteristics technique for supersonic nozzle design, and performance evaluation of an experimental scarfed curved wall FTV configuration.Previous work has suggested that the use of a sheared exhaust velocity profile improves the attachment of supersonic jets to curved surfaces; however, evidence to support this is limited. To address this, an inviscid numerical CWJ model was developed using the two-dimensional method of characteristics. A major outcome is improved understanding of the effect of exhaust velocity profile on CWJ wave structure and subsequent jet attachment. A sheared velocity exhaust is shown to generate a wave structure that diminishes adverse streamwise pressure gradients within a supersonic curved-wall jet. This reduces the likelihood of boundary layer separation and as a result, a sheared exhaust velocity CWJ is expected to be less readily separated compared to other exhaust velocity profiles.A novel method termed Superimposed Characteristics was developed for the low-order design of supersonic nozzles with rectangular exits. The technique is capable of generating 3D nozzle geometries based on independent exit plane orientation and exhaust velocity distribution requirements. The Superimposed Characteristics method was used to design scarfed rectangular exit nozzles with sheared velocity exhaust profiles. These nozzles were then evaluated using finite volume computational methods and experimental methods. From the analysis, the Superimposed Characteristics method is shown to be valid for preliminary nozzle design.Experimental methods were used to study the on- and off-design attachment qualities of uniform and sheared velocity exhaust jets for a FTV configuration with an external curved wall termination angle of 90 degrees and scarf angle of 30 degrees. Experiments at the on-design nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 3.3 demonstrated pitch and yaw jet deflection angles of 78 degrees and 23 degrees respectively for the uniform exhaust velocity CWJ. The sheared exhaust velocity CWJ achieved lower pitch and yaw deflection angles of 34 degrees and 14 degrees respectively at the same on-design NPR. The lower jet deflection angles observed for sheared exhaust velocity jets is inconsistent with the CWJ model prediction of reduced adverse streamwise pressure gradients; however, there was insufficient experimental instrumentation to identify the cause. In the off-design experiments, the uniform exhaust velocity CWJ was observed to detach at an NPR of 3.6, whilst the sheared exhaust velocity CWJ remained attached at NPRs in excess of 4. The capability of sheared exhaust velocity CWJs to remain attached at higher NPRs is consistent with the analytical theory and the CWJ model predictions.An actuation study was carried out to achieve controlled jet detachment using secondary blowing injected normal to the curved wall. Full separation of the wall jets was achieved downstream of the injection point. This provided vectoring angles of more than 20 degrees in pitch and 10 degrees in yaw, exceeding expected vectoring requirements for practical aircraft control. At the on-design NPR, the uniform and sheared exhaust velocity jets required secondary blowing mass flow rates of 2.1% and 3.8% of the primary mass flow respectively to achieve full separation.
Date of Award31 Dec 2016
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
Supervisorwilliam crowther (Supervisor), Alistair Revell (Supervisor) & Katharine Smith (Supervisor)


  • Experimental
  • Yaw
  • Method of Characteristics
  • Scarf
  • Attachment
  • Nozzle Design
  • Vortex nozzle
  • Pitch
  • Compressible
  • Fluidic Thrust Vectoring
  • High-Aspect Ratio
  • Dual-Axis
  • Sheared Velocity
  • Curved-Wall Jet
  • Superimposed Characteristics
  • Supersonic

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