Educating Nursing Tutors on the Assessment and Management of Pain in Children

  • Francisca Achaliwie

Student thesis: Phd


Background: Despite evidence to guide pain management, pain remains a major health-related problem internationally and many studies have revealed patients do not receive appropriate pain management. For paediatric patients’, undertreatment of pain is an even bigger problem as children’s experiences of pain vary across all pain types including acute, recurrent, and chronic pain; with many children reporting unresolved moderate to severe pain. One key factor which may contribute to under treatment of pain in children by nurses is lack of knowledge. In Ghana opportunities for nurses to learn about paediatric pain have been limited due to gaps in the undergraduate curriculum and inadequate continuing professional education post qualification. Educating nurse tutors about paediatric pain was considered vital for enabling students and thereby future nurses to be equipped with the necessary evidence-based knowledge of how to manage paediatric pain. Aim: To explore the impact an educational package based on train-the-trainer principles regarding paediatric pain management exerted on both teaching delivery and student learning at one nursing school in Ghana. Method: A mixed methods design underpinned by pragmatic philosophies was employed to conduct the study. Total population sampling was used to access 37 tutors, and convenient sampling was employed to garner 24 students. Data collection was completed between September 2018 and February 2019. Quantitative data from tutors were collected using the Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) at 3 stages; pre-intervention (as a needs assessment), immediately after the train-the-trainer based Paediatric Pain Educational Workshop (PPEW) educational intervention and at 3-months follow-up. Qualitative data were collected from tutors and students via focus-groups (3 from tutors, 2 from students) at pre- and 3-months post-intervention. Following the pre-intervention needs assessment a bespoke PPEW was designed as the educational intervention for tutors. Quantitative data from the KASRP were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data analysis drew on Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis. Results: Quantitative results at pre-intervention showed low scores in the KASRP. However, post-intervention results at both the immediate and 3-months follow-up stages revealed a significant increase from pre-intervention: Mean (SD) of 20.35 (4.56), immediate follow-up Mean (SD) 26.93 (5.02), 3-mpnths follow-up Mean (SD) 25.19 (5.80) and a p-value of
Date of Award31 Dec 2021
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorAnn Wakefield (Supervisor) & Carolyn Mackintosh-Franklin (Supervisor)


  • Nursing Tutors
  • Pain Management
  • Nurses
  • Training
  • Teaching
  • Educating
  • Children

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