Enhancing Capacity and Coverage for Heterogeneous Cellular Systems

  • Azwan Mahmud

Student thesis: Phd


The thesis is concerned with capacity and coverage enhancement of OFDMA heterogeneous cellular systems with a specific focus on fractional frequency reuse (FFR), femtocells and amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems. The main aim of the thesis is to develop new mathematical analysis for the spectral efficiency and outage probability of multi-cells multi-tier systems in diverse traffic, interference and fading scenarios. In the first part of the thesis, a new unified mathematical framework for performance analysis of FFR and soft frequency reuse (SFR) schemes is developed. This leads to new exact expressions of FFR and SFR area spectral efficiency in downlink and uplink scenarios which account for a mixture of frequency reuse factors in a homogeneous cellular system. The mathematical framework is extended to include modelling and performance analysis of FFR systems with elastic data traffic. Further analysis is carried out in relation to the performance of FFR and/or SFR schemes, in terms of energy efficiency and base station cooperation. The new proposed analytical framework can lead to a better understanding and computationally efficient performance analysis of next generation heterogeneous cellular systems. Next generation cellular systems are characterized by an increase in the spatial node density to improve the spectral efficiency and coverage, especially for users at home and at the cell edges. In this regard, relays and femtocells play a major role. Therefore, relays and femocells are the focus of the second part of the thesis. Firstly, we present a new and unified spectral efficiency analysis in dual-hop fixed-gain AF relay systems over generalised interferences models. The generalised interference models are either based on the Nakagami-m fading with arbitrary distance or on spatial Poisson Point Process in case of randomly deployed heterogeneous interferers. The models have been considered separately in the open literature due to the complexity of the mathematical analysis. Secondly, the outage probability is utilised to deduce the femtocell exclusion region for FFR system and a new static resource allocation scheme is proposed for femtocells which improve the capacity.The work presented in the thesis has resulted in the publication of seven scientific papers in prestigious IEEE journals and conferences.
Date of Award1 Aug 2015
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorKhairi Hamdi (Supervisor)


  • heterogeneous system
  • nakagami
  • fractional frequency reuse
  • poisson process
  • capacity
  • femtocells
  • fading
  • interference
  • cellular system
  • relay

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