Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Randomised controlled trials, representing over 2100 patients, have failed to demonstrate any prognostic benefit of percutaneous renal revascularisation when utilised in addition to standard medical therapy. This negative finding has been interpreted in three ways. Firstly, that ARVD may be an association of CKD and not a specific disease process. Secondly, that published studies have recruited low-risk patients who are least likely to benefit from revascularisation. Thirdly, that the focus of treatment for patients with ARVD should be optimal medical therapy, not renal revascularisation.This research project had a series of linked aims. These were investigated in two large patient cohorts that had been accumulated at this centre over the last decade. These cohorts comprised > 900 patients with ARVD, the Salford Renovascular Database (SRVD), and > 2500 patients with all-cause CKD, the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Standards Implementation Study (CRISIS). The first aim was to consider whether ARVD should be considered as a specific cause of CKD. Here risks for death and progression to renal replacement therapy were compared between patients having ARVD as their primary cause of renal failure and patients with other coded causes of CKD. In this analysis, patients with ARVD had a greater risk for death and a lesser risk for RRT than patients with other forms of CKD.The second aim of this thesis was to consider if specific patient sub-groups of ARVD could be identified. Patients in the SRVD with currently accepted high- risk clinical presentations were selected and outcomes compared to patients without a high-risk presentation. In this analysis, presentation with flash pulmonary oedema (but with not refractory hypertension or rapidly declining renal function) was associated with an increased risk for death and cardiovascular event. When the effects of revascularisation were considered in patients with high-risk presentations, a mortality benefit was observed in patients with flash pulmonary oedema and in patients presenting with rapidly declining renal function and refractory hypertension in combination. A separate analysis was performed in the SRVD to consider if a high-risk sub-group of ARVD patients could be identified using laboratory measurements. Here, a classification tree methodology was employed to identify ARVD patients with the greatest risk for progression to end stage kidney disease. The results of this analysis were converted into a practically applicable clinical scoring system incorporating renal function, proteinuria, medications, smoking history and renal artery occlusion.The final aim of this thesis was to describe how the majority of ARVD patients should be treated. In this analysis of the SRVD effects of treatment with anti- platelet and beta-blocker therapy were considered, and shown to be associated with reduced risks for cardiovascular events and death.
|Date of Award||1 Aug 2014|
- The University of Manchester
|Supervisor||Philip Kalra (Supervisor)|
- Flash pulmonary oedema
- Atherosclerotic renovascular disease
- Renal artery stenosis
- Chronic kidney disease