2-Dimensional (2D) materials are characterised by atomic thickness and significantly larger edge-lengths, producing particles which are highly confined in 1 direction. Reducing a material to one or few atomic layers gives rise to structural and electronic properties that deviate significantly from those of the bulk crystal. For this reason 2D nanosheets have been investigated for potential application in sensing, catalysis, capacitance, photovoltaics and for flexible circuits (among others).Despite rapid progress in understanding the synthesis and properties of 2D nanosheets in recent years, there remain significant problems surrounding the development of scalable production methods, understanding and tuning fundamental properties, and controlling the size and monodispersity of semiconductor crystals. In addition, new materials with novel properties are constantly sought in order to meet specific requirements. Although the tools developed over the last 12 years can often be applied to the fabrication of these materials, understanding their behaviour and limitations is ongoing.The following thesis discusses the routes to the fabrication of 2-dimensional materials and explores the production of MoS2, black phosphorus and tin(II) sulfide nanosheets. The aim of each piece of work is determined by the level of development of the field; MoS2 nanosheets have been known for several years and therefore the work presented was motivated by a desire to impart size control for specific applications.The study of phosphorene and 2D tin(II) sulfide is in its infancy; as such the focus remains on scalable nanosheet exfoliation and developing an understanding of their properties. The following studies on phosphorene report the exfoliation of nanosheets in organic and aqueous surfactant solutions and an investigation of the stability and breakdown products of the resulting colloidal suspensions. The stabilisation of phosphorene in aqueous media paves the way for its use in biological systems. Band-gap tuning in IV-VI analogues of phosphorene is demonstrated by size-selection of exfoliated SnS nanosheets.Although the physical characteristics of nanosheets and their incorporation into devices receive some attention, this thesis will focus mainly on the synthetic aspects of 2D materials research.
|Date of Award||3 Jan 2017|
- The University of Manchester
|Supervisor||Paul O'Brien (Supervisor), William Sampson (Supervisor) & Richard Pattrick (Supervisor)|
- 2D Materials