Frequency control ancillary services in large interconnected systems

  • Edmond Diouf

Student thesis: Phd


This research focuses on frequency control ancillary services in large interconnected systems. It analyses and assesses possible alternatives for optimal and innovative solutions of major frequency control issues in large interconnected systems within liberalised electricity markets. Possible improvements in the performance of frequency control are identified. A framework of frequency control ancillary services in large interconnected systems by including loads and wind generation is also proposed.The research has been motivated by the paucity of research in power system dynamics focusing on large interconnected systems such as the European synchronous system and the Eastern interconnection which experience important frequency control challenges. These challenges include:- Decline in frequency response in the Eastern interconnection - Deterministic frequency deviations observed at the top of the hours in the European synchronous systemFrequency control issues became critical when electricity markets were deregulated and frequency control became an ancillary service with a decidedly commercial focus. This commercial focus has spawned a lot of work on frequency control markets and economics whereas not much research has been devoted to dynamic simulation of large interconnected systems. Apart from this commercial focus, frequency control in large interconnected systems is still based on historical practices mainly because changes suggested in the literature can be barely applied in large interconnected systems. This is essentially because dynamic simulation studies are uncorrelated with frequency control markets and economics. More specifically, dynamic studies do not take into account the characteristics of each reserve activated and also the way the reserve is activated. With the deregulation of the electricity market, reserve is considered as a product and not necessarily a response provided by a unit. The main objectives of this research therefore are to solve critical frequency control issues in large interconnected deregulated electricity systems, which may present potential economic benefits. To achieve these objectives, frequency control in large interconnected systems is studied by considering on one hand frequency control theory and on the other hand its implementation in practice taking account of frequency control ancillary service markets as well as the economics and practical consequences of frequency control. This approach is necessary to accommodate the future evolution of frequency control in large interconnected systems. The proposed approach is illustrated through a model of frequency control in the European synchronous system, where practices are better known, are clearly standardised and also where frequency data has been obtained.
Date of Award1 Aug 2013
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorVladimir Terzija (Supervisor) & Joseph Mutale (Supervisor)


  • Load Frequency Control
  • Ancillary Services
  • Secondary Control
  • Frequency Control
  • Automatic Generation Control
  • Primary Control

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