Loss of Mains Detection and Amelioration on Electrical Distribution Networks

  • Chui Fen Ten

Student thesis: Phd


Power system islanding is gaining increasing interest as a way to maintain power supply continuity. However, before this operation become viable, the technical challenges associated with its operation must first be addressed. A possible solution to one of these challenges, out-of synchronism reclosure, is by running the islanded system in synchronism with the mains whilst not being electrically connected. This concept, known as "synchronous islanded operation" avoids the danger of out-of-synchronism reclosure of the islanded system onto the mains. The research in this thesis was based on the concepts presented in [1-3] and specifically applied to multiple-DG island scenarios. The additional control challenges associated with this scenario are identified and an appropriate control scheme, more suited for the operation of multiple-DG synchronous islands, is proposed. The results suggest that multiple-DG synchronous islanded operation is feasible, but a supervisory controller is necessary to facilitate the information exchange within the islanded system and enable stable operation.For maximum flexibility, the synchronous island must be capable of operating with a diversity of generation. The difficulties become further complicated when some or all of the generation consists of intermittent sources. The performance of the proposed control scheme in the presence of a significant contribution of renewable sources within the island is investigated. Two types of wind technologies were developed in PSCAD/EMTDC for this purpose, they are a fixed speed induction generator (FSIG) based wind farm and a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farm. The results show that although synchronous islanded operation is still achievable, the intermittent output has an adverse effect on the control performance, and in particular limits the magnitude of disturbances that can happen in the island without going beyond the relaxed synchronisation limits of ±60o.Energy storage is proposed as a way to reduce the wind farm power variation and improve phase controller response. A supplementary control is also proposed such that DFIG contributes to the inertial response. The potential of the proposed scheme (energy storage + supplementary control) is evaluated using case studies. The results show massive improvement to the load acceptance limits, even beyond the case where no wind farm is connected. The benefit of the proposed scheme is even more apparent as the share of wind generated energy in the island grows.
Date of Award31 Dec 2011
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorPeter Crossley (Supervisor)


  • Wind
  • Energy Storage
  • Out of Synchronism
  • Island
  • Distributed Generation

Cite this