Organisational Culture in Community Pharmacy: Design and Validation of a New Instrument

  • Iuri Marques

Student thesis: Phd


Background: Organisational culture refers to the way employees perceive, think and feel about their work and organisation, guiding their behaviours. The way community pharmacists perceive their work pressures, as well as organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction and commitment, turnover and performance may be influenced by organisational culture. However, there is little evidence of the link between organisational culture and community pharmacists' perceptions of their workplace. Moreover, it is not possible to establish which outcomes can be linked to organisational culture, due to the lack of validated instruments capable of measuring aspects that are unique to community pharmacy. The aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire to measure organisational culture in community pharmacy in Great Britain.Methods of questionnaire design and testing: Qualitative interviews with 12 community pharmacists working in Greater Manchester and relevant literature were analysed to identify variables describing organisational culture in community pharmacy, informing the design of a new conceptual model. Survey items were drafted based on the conceptual model, and response categories for the questionnaire were chosen. Cognitive interviews established the content validity of the conceptual model and questionnaire. The questionnaire was then administered to a sample of community pharmacists in Great Britain (n=1000) obtained from the GPhC register of pharmacies. Factor analysis was conducted to validate the questionnaire and investigate its component structure. Inferential analysis was conducted to investigate differences in how community pharmacists perceived organisational culture.Results: Two-hundred-and-nine usable questionnaires were returned. Factor analysis revealed five dimensions comprising of 60 items. These dimensions are: Business and work configuration; Social relationships; Personal and professional development; Skills utilisation; and Environment and structures. The conceptual model was adjusted based on these dimensions and the items retained, describing how different variables interact to produce different cultures. The questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties, with high levels of validity and reliability. Findings from the questionnaire revealed differences in how community pharmacists perceived their cultures, suggesting different cultures: more positive ratings were associated with owners, pharmacists from ethnic backgrounds, and those working in independent pharmacies; more negative ratings were associated with relief pharmacists, white pharmacists, and pharmacists working in supermarket pharmacies.Discussion: Organisational culture influences the way individuals think and behave. Supportive cultures that facilitate workflow are paramount in shaping organisations' professional image and determining its success. However, findings from the questionnaire indicate that the way community pharmacists perceive organisational culture varies, suggesting different organisational cultures. It is important for leaders to consider these differences and their impact on organisational outcomes. The validated conceptual model will be useful in future research by describing how different configurations produce different cultures. The questionnaire will allow the investigation of differences in how organisational culture is perceived in community pharmacy and their link to job outcomes, and identification of organisational variables which may be perceived as infrequent triggering change and guiding interventions to maximise positive outcomes, for both pharmacists and pharmacies.
Date of Award1 Aug 2016
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorSarah Willis (Supervisor) & Ellen Schafheutle (Supervisor)


  • Community Pharmacy
  • Great Britain
  • Organisational culture

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