Performance Evaluation of the SPS Scraping System in View of the High Luminosity LHC

  • Alessio Mereghetti

Student thesis: Phd


Injection in the LHC is a delicate moment, since the LHC collimation system cannot offer adequate protection during beam transfer. For this reason, a complex chain of injection protection devices has been put in place. Among them, the SPS scrapers are the multi-turn cleaning system installed in the SPS aimed at halo removal immediately before injection in the LHC.The upgrade in luminosity of the LHC foresees beams brighter than those currently available in machine, posing serious problems to the performance of the existing injection protection systems. In particular, the integrity of beam-intercepting devices is challenged by unprecedented beam parameters, leading to interactions potentially destructive. In this context, a new design of scrapers has been proposed, aimed at improved robustness and performance.This thesis compares the two scraping systems, i.e. the existing one and the one proposed for upgrade. Unlike any other collimation system for regular halo cleaning, both are "fast" systems, characterised by the variation of the relative distance between the beam and the absorbing medium during cleaning, which enhances the challenge on energy deposition values. Assets / liabilities of the two systems are highlighted by means of numerical simulations and discussed, with particular emphasis on energy deposition in the absorbing medium, time evolution of the beam current during scraping and losses in the machine. Advantages of the system proposed for upgrade over the existing one are highlighted.The analysis of the existing system takes into account present operational conditions and addresses the sensitivity to settings previously not considered, updating and extending past studies. The work carried out on the upgraded system represents the first extensive characterisation of a multi-turn cleaning system based on a magnetic bump.Results have been obtained with the Fluka-SixTrack coupling, developed during this PhD activity from its initial version to being a state-of-art tracking tool for cleaning studies in circular machines. Relevant contributions to the development involve the handling of time-varying impact conditions. An extensive benchmark against a test of the scraper blades with beam has been carried out, to verify the reliability of results. Effcts induced in the tested blades confirm the high values of energy deposition predicted by the simulation. Moreover, the comparison with the time profile of the beam intensity measured during scraping allowed the reconstruction of the actual settings of the blades during the test. Finally, the good agreement of the quantitative benchmark against readouts of beam loss monitors finally proves the quality of the analyses and the maturity of the coupling.
Date of Award31 Dec 2015
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorRobert Appleby (Supervisor)


  • beam-intercepting devices
  • High Luminosity LHC
  • LHC Injectors Upgrade
  • beam scraping
  • fast cleaning systems
  • single particle tracking in accelerators

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