• Lina Hamadeh

Student thesis: Phd


Periodically correlated time series generally exist in several fields including hydrology, climatology, economics and finance, and are commonly modelled using periodic autoregressive (PAR) model. For a time series with stochastic periodic trend, for which a unit root is expected, a periodically integrated autoregressive PIAR model with periodic and/or seasonal unit root has been shown to be a satisfactory model. The existing theory used the multivariate methodology to study PIAR models. However, this theory is convoluted, majority of it only developed for quarterly time series and its generalisation to time series with larger number of periods is quite cumbersome.This thesis studies the existing theory and highlights its restrictions and flaws. It provides a coherent presentation of the steps for analysing PAR and PIAR models for different number of periods. It presents the different unit roots representations and compares the performance of different unit root tests available in literature. The restrictions of existing studies gave us the impetus to develop a unified theory that gives a clear understanding of the integration and unit roots in the periodic models. This theory is based on the spectral information of the multi-companion matrix of the periodic models. It is more general than the existing theory, since it can be applied to any number of periods whereas the existing methods are developed for quarterly time series. Using the multi-companion method, we specify and estimate the periodic models without the need to extract complicated restrictions on the model parameters corresponding to the unit roots, as required by NLS method. The multi-companion estimation method performed well and its performance is equivalent to the NLS estimation method that has been used in the literature. Analysing integrated multivariate models is a problematic issue in time series. The multi-companion theory provides a more general approach than the error correction method that is commonly used to analyse such time series. A modified state state representation for the seasonal periodically integrated autoregressive (SPIAR) model with periodic and seasonal unit roots is presented. Also an alternative state space representations from which the state space representations of PAR, PIAR and the seasonal periodic autoregressive (SPAR) models can be directly obtained is proposed. The seasons of the parameters in these representations have been clearly specified, which guarantees correct estimated parameters. Kalman filter have been used to estimate the parameters of these models and better estimation results are obtained when the initial values were estimated rather than when they were given.
Date of Award1 Aug 2016
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorGeorgi Boshnakov (Supervisor) & Jingsong Yuan (Supervisor)


  • State space representation, Seasonal unit root.
  • Periodic autoregressive model, multi-companion matrix, spectral parameterisation, periodic unit root, periodic integration

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