• Controllah Gabi

Student thesis: Phd


This study focused on stress and resilience among teachers in 15 urban secondary schools serving areas of multiple and complex disadvantage in the Greater Manchester and Merseyside regions of England (UK). It utilised the mixed-methods approach to gather and analyse the data. This consisted of a questionnaire survey of 150 teachers and interviews of 20 teachers. It examined person characteristics of teachers in these schools; key stress risks in the schools; coping strategies employed by these teachers and their protective factors. The main quantitative analysis methodologies used in the study were descriptive analysis; factor analysis and regression analysis. Qualitative findings were analysed using thematic analysis and teacher pen portrait and school case study presentations. Integrative analysis of quantitative and qualitative findings was then conducted in the discussion of main findings. This study found that the teachers' major force characteristics were self-efficacy; persistence; personal attitudes towards one's job; personality and temperament and commitment to the job. Their main resource characteristic was experience while their major demand characteristic was their professional role. These teachers were also exposed to person, proximal processes, context and time risks. There were risks associated with force and demand person characteristics. The main process risks were within their interactions with pupils, parents, colleagues and senior management. There were also context risks in their microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem. There were also time risks across the microtime, mesotime and macrotime. To cope, teachers in this sample utilised both direct-action and palliative coping strategies. Results also indicated that these teachers' protective factors were in their resource and force characteristics; proximal processes; context and time.
Date of Award1 Aug 2016
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorOlwen Mcnamara (Supervisor) & Graeme Hutcheson (Supervisor)


  • Mixed-methods
  • Bronfenbrenner
  • Person-Process-Context-Time model
  • Bioecological model
  • Teacher resilience
  • Coping
  • Teacher stress
  • PPCT model

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