Student thesis: Phd


The kidneys have a significant role in drug elimination through both metabolic and excretory routes. Despite a recent paradigm shift towards systems pharmacology approaches, prediction of renal drug disposition using 'bottom-up' and mechanistic modelling approaches remains underdeveloped. Lack of 'gold-standard' in vitro assays and corresponding in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approaches for prediction of renal metabolic (CLR,met) and excretory (CLR) clearances contribute to this. A comprehensive literature analysis of quantitative physiological data to inform renal IVIVE scaling factors and systems parameters relevant for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) kidney models was initially performed to identify existing knowledge gaps. Following this, microsomal protein content in dog kidney cortex (MPPGK) and liver (MPPGL) were measured in 17 samples from the same animal. Mean dog MPPGK (44.0 mg/ g kidney) and MPPGL (63.6 mg/ g liver) obtained using glucose-6-phosphatase activity as the microsomal protein marker where systematically higher than when CYP content was used as the marker (33.9 mg/ g kidney and 41.1 mg/ g liver respectively). Dog MPPGK was lower than MPPGL, with no direct correlation between the organs. In addition to dog, MPPGK and cytosolic protein per gram kidney (CPPGK) were obtained from 31 human samples, which represent the largest dataset currently available. Mean human MPPGK (25.7 mg/ g kidney) and CPPGK (52.7 mg/ g kidney), were measured using glucose-6-phosphatase and glutathione-S-transferase activities as recovery markers, respectively. Activity of prepared kidney microsomes was assessed using mycophenolic acid glucuronidation as a marker. Novel scaling factor of 25.7 mg/ g kidney was applied for IVIVE of mycophenolic acid microsomal glucuronidation data, resulting in a 2-fold increase in scaled intrinsic clearance compared with data scaled by the commonly used literature MPPGK value (12.8 mg/ g kidney). In addition to the microsomal scaling factor, several elements of a modified stereology method were developed for quantifying human proximal tubule cellularity. The methods included implementation of a systematic uniform random sampling protocol and investigation of tinctorial and immunohistochemistry based staining approaches that could be used identify and count proximal tubule cells in histology sections.A range of mechanistic models for prediction of CLR via either tubular reabsorption or active secretion were developed. A novel 5-compartment model for prediction of tubular reabsorption and CLR from Caco-2 apparent permeability data was developed. This model accounted for relevant physiological complexities of the kidney, such as regional differences in tubular filtrate flow rates and tubular surface area, including consideration of the impact of microvilli. The model predicted the CLR of 45 drugs with overall good accuracy (geometric mean fold error of 1.96), although a systematic under-prediction was noted for basic drugs. The novel 5-compartment model represents an important addition to the IVIVE toolbox for physiologically-based prediction of renal tubular reabsorption and CLR and can be implemented in the more complex mechanistic kidney models, as shown in the case of prediction of urine flow dependent CLR of theophylline and caffeine. Final part of the Thesis focused on the refinement of digoxin PBPK kidney model and its ability to predict effect of aging and renal impairment on digoxin CLR. The analysis has identified that reducing either the proximal tubule cellularity or OATP4C1 abundance parameters in the mechanistic model recovers well observed reduced tubular secretion and CLR of digoxin in renal impairment populations whereas no effect of modification of P-gp abundance was observed. Conversely, reducing the proximal tubule cellularity, OATP4C1 abundance or P-gp abundance parameters in the model resulted in negligible change, decreased or increased accumulation of digoxin in
Date of Award1 Aug 2016
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorAmin Rostami-Hochaghan (Supervisor) & Aleksandra Galetin (Supervisor)


  • Human Kidney Transporters
  • Renal drug metabolism
  • Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model
  • Human Renal Drug Clearance
  • In vitro-in vivo extrapolation

Cite this