Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) for Families of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Self-directed Teen Triple P

  • Francesca Doherty

Student thesis: Doctor of Clinical Psychology


This thesis follows a paper based format where papers 1 and 2 are stand-alone papers prepared for submission to the Journal of Pediatric Psychology. The relevant submission guidelines are included in the Appendix.Paper One: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of family-centred interventions for children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and review the bias associated with included studies. The review summarises the outcome measures which consisted of HbA1cs, hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), adherence, and family relationships including diabetes-related conflict. Research studies that were randomized controlled trials were selected to maximise the quality of information reviewed. Electronic searches of the OVID database using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched from their start dates until May 2012. Nine studies were located and assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Two studies were excluded from further analysis due to serious concerns about bias of their results. The remaining 7 had their findings summarised in a narrative statement, which indicated that family-centred interventions significantly improved HbA1cs, reduced DKA admission rates, improved adherence, and enhanced family relationships including reduced conflict. Family-centred interventions appear to be effective in enhancing health and psychological outcomes. The interventions however, were mainly in clinical settings and delivered by trained professionals. Given the importance of the family relationships in diabetes control, a need exists for interventions to have a more flexible setting and method of delivery, remain viable and demonstrate sustainability.Paper two: Clinic based interventions in type 1 diabetes have shown improvements in family relationships and metabolic control, but have limited reach. Therefore, a selfdirected intervention was evaluated. Recruitment occurred through national advertising with diabetes charities, and the randomized controlled trial was conducted via online data collection. Parents of adolescents (aged 11-17) with diabetes were randomized to usual care (n = 37) or intervention (n = 42) using computerised block randomization, with researchers blinded to block size. The 10 week intervention involved the Self-directed Teen Triple P (Positive Parenting Program) workbook (10x1hour modules) and Chronic Illness tip sheet. Primary outcomes of diabetes-related family conflict and parenting stress were assessed pre and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken (n = 79), due to increased attrition from the intervention group. Intervention significantly improved diabetes related conflict, but not parental stress, compared to usual care. Followup analyses will assess maintenance effects and impact on metabolic control. Paper three: This paper was a Critical Evaluation, the purpose of which was to consider the findings from both papers, highlight additional and unexpected outcomes, place the research in the wider context, explore limitations of the thesis, and to discuss implications for future work.
Date of Award31 Dec 2012
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorRachel Calam (Supervisor)


  • chronic illness
  • family relations
  • therapy
  • parenting
  • adolescen*
  • paediatric
  • child*
  • pediatric

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