The distance from the contact point to the crest of the bone to predict the presence of a black triangle

  • Joanne Cunliffe

Student thesis: Phd


Losing interdental gingival tissue can lead to a phenomemon known as black triangles. The absence of the interdental papilla (the so called 'black triangle disease') can cause patients problems with appearance, phonetics and with the impaction of food. The gingival soft tissues form the framework and the architecture of the dentition and, in the maxillary anterior region of the mouth, play an important role in dental aesthetics. If there is any change to the shape and/or symmetry of the gingivae through developmental, pathologic or iatrogenic factors, there can be a significant and detrimental change in the appearance and balance of the natural dentition and any prosthetic tooth replacement.In this clinical research study, we find that the radiographic measurement of the distance of the contact point to the crest of the bone is a valid and reliable tool to use. This method also adds strength to predicting black triangles as the results are similar to earlier studies and the numbers used in this study was nearly twice as much.
Date of Award31 Dec 2015
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorIain Pretty (Supervisor)


  • black traiangle
  • interdental papilla
  • Contact points
  • crest of bone
  • gingival aesthetics

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