The Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III for the British Urdu Speaking Population

Student thesis: Master of Philosophy


Background There is a need for suitable cognitive assessment scales for minority ethnic groups, particularly for British South Asians who are at a higher risk for receiving a diagnosis of dementia. The DOME research project, reported in this thesis, aimed to address this need by translating and culturally adapting a psychometrically robust cognitive assessment scale, The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III (ACE-III), for the British Urdu speaking population. Methods We undertook a multi-method approach across three studies, within ten months. We conducted a systematic review of all existing primary publications of the ACE, ACE-R and ACE-III and received feedback from existing adaptors of the ACE-III. We extracted the translation and cultural adaptation steps from both these sources to develop guidelines for translating and culturally adapting the ACE-III. We also gathered feedback from focus groups with lay persons and reached a consensus with experts in a consensus meeting, to develop the ACE-III Urdu. This was then administered to lay persons from our target population and cognitive interviews were conducted to assess their understanding and acceptability of the ACE-III Urdu. The ACE-III Urdu was then amended accordingly and finalised. Results We were successfully able to develop guidelines and utilise them to adapt the ACE-III Urdu, with feedback from lay persons and experts. Through 25 cognitive interviews we were able to gather that the overall response to the ACE-III Urdu is positive, as participants found it to be straightforward, understandable and culturally acceptable and appropriate. Interpretation This research project has resulted in a culturally validated Urdu version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III - The ACE-III Urdu.
Date of Award3 Jan 2018
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorPeter Bower (Supervisor) & Waquas Waheed (Supervisor)


  • cognitive assessment
  • ethnic minority
  • South Asian
  • dementia
  • neuropsychological
  • psychometric

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