• Francisco Hago

Student thesis: Phd


Abstract Purpose: The analysis of complex socio-technical systems such the national solid waste system shows its needs and benefits that efficiently and technically treat the generated waste in a society. However, more ambitious benefits can be achieved while a country treats its waste. An adequate organic waste treatment system can generate bio-outcomes to meet the national demand for targeted products; it decreases imports of the same product; and, in the case of developing countries, alleviates their vulnerabilities with the external sector. Method: Development of a system dynamic model under the design science research framework. The model evaluates four waste treatment systems (composting, anaerobic digestion, composting in combination with mechanical treatment, and anaerobic digestion in combination with mechanical treatment) from a socio-technical perspective to produce one bio-product (organic fertilizers). The model also estimates the effects of the national production on the external sector (decrements of imports for chemical fertilizers). Results: A continuous simulation modelling of complex systems such as the solid waste system treatment is developed for a developing country. The model indicates when the organic waste treatment, for each evaluated treatment, meets the national demand of biofertilizers; it also indicates when the economic feasibility breakpoint is reached; and how the national bioproduction from waste impact the imports of the product. The same results are generated when the model is applied to three different countries. Contributions: The study generates two contributions to knowledge: • An artifact that integrates various sub-systems from the SW system to estimate the socio-technical feasibility of the system, to calculate the supply of demand for one product with the national bioproduction, and to calculates the effects on imports for the same product. • A versatile analytical tool that can be applied to different countries. It recognizes the societal structural conditions such as development levels, geographical regions, or income levels.
Date of Award31 Dec 2021
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Manchester
SupervisorCesar Marin Pitalua (Supervisor) & Fahian Huq (Supervisor)


  • Mechanical Treatment
  • Biofertilizers
  • Anaerobic Digestion
  • Bioproducts
  • Simulation
  • Socio-Technical Systems
  • System Dynamics
  • Composting

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